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A Selection of “Aggadic” Texts

This segment is a bit rambling, I’ll tighten it up and fluff it out as we go along.

Now most of you will have read a smattering of lighter literature, which fits into this category, Harry Kemelman’s series of Rabbi Small stories, detective stories depicting a normal Jewish community as their background, perhaps comparable to the Father Brown series. Maybe you have also encountered a British series (also made into a BBC program) about a detective monk in the Middle Ages. They are harmless but not particularly useful. Noah Gordon’s books come a little closer, but if you really want to get genuine insight, you are going to have to go one step further. I am proposing two authors, who I think will enable you to do that, both have written numerous books, but get you started on two each. Doing this for Islam is going to be a little more difficult, but we’ll come to that a little later.

Judaism

For Judaism you can’t get much better than Chaim Potok. I propose you start with the pair of novels: The Chosen and The Promise, which form a series. The setting is New York in the 1950’s and the protagonists are, in the first book, an “orthodox” rabbi and his son and a “Chassidic” rabbis son. Now the Chassidic son is destined to be his father’s successor and care for their people. His only brother is sickly and not up to the task. He is being groomed for this by his father. As the story opens, he almost blinds the other boy with a baseball. The latter’s father insists that his son not only accept the boy’s apology, but also that he make him his friend. That is a really difficult for the son to do, but his father explains (in Jewish terms) how and why this is to be done. It turns out much later that the Chassidic boy has not only managed to get permission to play baseball, he has, in addition to all his religious studies, been reading voraciously in the library, where the professor/rabbi has discovered him and has been guiding his reading, discussing what he has read with him and leading him on to fill the gaps in his primarily religious education. In the course of the story the problematic relationship, which the Chassidic boy has to his father is uncovered, but it is not resolved for the reader until the end of the second novel.

The second novel opens when the boys are in college, the Chassidic one now studying psychology and working as an intern in a special institute for disturbed youth. It is to him that a third “liberal” rabbi brings his son when he becomes unmanageable as an adolescent. Both he and the institute entrust the youth to the budding psychologist, who uses some very unconventional methods. When the final resolution comes, one has a panorama of three paths to the very same spiritual goals, and these bind the men together, despite their very real and crucial differences. I can think of no better introduction to our task.

Chaim Potok was a rabbi and a professor, but he was also a brilliant writer. He wrote a marvelous History of the Jews and also a book, which is a quasi sequel to these two set during the Korean War and has a more esoteric finale: (but read the other two first! – don’t get hung up on quasi esoteric!)…..(Light)

Catholic

The other author to whom I would like to introduce you is Andrew Greeley, a Catholic priest, a professor of sociology, who wrote numerous novels and also serious academic works. His figures, too, tend to crop up in different novels, but these two are unrelated. The novels I would like to recommend to you are: Capital Virtues and Contract with an Angel. Virtues and vices are handholds for spiritual growth in Catholicism. In the first book the parish priest is an older man, who lives together with two rather problematic priests, one of whom is a dry alcoholic. Then he is sent a “young priest”. One who is strikingly handsome, rich, gifted in every way…. and the protagonist sets out to live the virtues of prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. It’s a story about a parish with all of its characters, young and old, death and divorce and vocations and – sex – and scandal. But it’s always those virtues in the background as the guiding light.

I’m going to re-structure this, because I want to pair this book off with another, that I’ll discuss below (see: On Angels and Devils (below, in sub-unit)
The second story is a “reverse Faust”. It begins in an airplane when a successful businessman discovers someone sitting next to him who wasn’t there before. The newcomer announces himself as an angel and predicts the man’s immanent demise and pulls a contract out of his pocket for him to sign. Not convinced, the protagonist resists – plane spirals into a dive, man signs – angel begins to help him get his life in order. It is a more playful work than the first book; you’ll like the angels, they are a wild bunch.

Greely also wrote a book “Unsecular Man” [I’m going to put this in level 3] in which he (1972!) analyzes the decline of religion and doesn’t believe it. He recounts the purposes religion fulfills in answering “ultimate” questions and asks what other forms these answers may be taking today. He concludes that religion no longer needs to explain scientific phenomena, but that our conquest of science has opened vistas in the social realm, which confront us with challenges never faced before, and that religion is charged with finding answers to these. In a second book he discloses the theory behind his literary writing: “God in Popular Culture”. I’ll do a longer piece on each of these, just get started for now on reading.

Greeley’s novels are out of print but available used on Amazon. Contract with an Angel is available as a Kindle ebook.

Lutheran

In trying to assess the difference in lived quality between the Catholic and the Lutheran perspectives I’ve been looking for something that caresses the latter. I found it in a rather unusual place. NPR, which you can access online or listen to directly here in Berlin (104,1 FM), has a program showcasing the Midwestern United States. Theses are modest people, who “don’t make eye contact”, for whom “putting peas in a tuna casserole is ‘showing off'”, who “don’t praise their children too much”. You’ll find them in “The Prairie Home Companion” (Sundays from 12:00 to 14:00) under “Tales of Lake Woebegone“, little vignettes about these modest and industrious people, how their days are formed and how they conquer life’s little difficulties. It’s a tender portrait, somewhat sad, but carrying the gentle rhythm of folks getting on with their everyday lives. If you can figure out how the access the initial show (rebroadcast in the 40th Anniversary show) on the web (I couldn’t), that has the very best version of this kind of discourse. This may not be the best choice, but I think I want to demonstrate a little bit of the different mind set between the two Christian communities for people from the other faiths. In the theoretical part I’ll go into where I think this difference in nuance has its origin. It’s real; making it visible is the first step.

Other suggestions (folks have made):

Dutch guy… (sorry, I’ll get his name, got rid of the books when I had finished them) he gives atmosphere but not spiritual development.

Bonhoeffer, very problematic, I’ll probably use my analysis of him, but it’s more a problem than a solution. I think I might have to use his “Ethics” in the section on unique problems.

Anglican

C.S. LewisScrewtape Letters” (see: Angels and Devils)

The importance of this seminal piece is two-fold: it was written in GB during WWII, i.e. during the shoah, and explicates the mind-frame necessary to transcend propaganda. It is the story of a devil training his nephew to lead a man astray, and by implication, of the Truth behind the BS. But it is, I think, suitable for exploring a Muslim’s understanding of the role of grace, repentance, renewal. It fits the gap which divides the different mentalities (some being more explicit about the process than others) by filling out the component of Tauba, elucidating it as a process. And it might provide an insight into how their process works, for other folks. So this is almost a crossover. It is an option that makes something that is explicit in one religion but more implicit in another visible through the contact.

Islam
Now for the question of Islam.

The novel is a modern invention, dependent on the development of the individual and social mobility and the conflicts, which ensue when navigating this milieu. Traditionally Arabic culture has treasured poetry, the choice of a mobile and oral culture, and has excelled in this. Recent novelists have addressed social change, but not as a deeply spiritual process.

I’m going to let you see the selection process here. It is / has to be part of a genuine endeavor to understand and engage the Other. If anyone has suggestions, I’d welcome them. This item is still unfinished for me, a work in progress.

Renate Jacobi recently wrote a fascinating treatise on the Ghazal, Arabic romantic poetry, and this certainly has nuances of Rumi, but it may not be as easily accessible and applicable as the novelists are.

I’ve tried the suggestions of a number of people:

Orhan Pamuk’s White Castle 

Navid Kermani’s novel on Große Liebe Hanser: München, 2014.

Elif Shafak: The Forty Rules of Love

They are either: bad literature (Pamuk – in my opinion!), Sufi oriented (Kermani & Shafak) or  social criticism (Maalouf); none of them address the spiritual growth processes in a way that I think would be helpful here.

I have found one book (Dzevad Karahasan. Das Buch der Gärten. Grenzgänge zwischen Islam und Christentum. Insel: Fft/M. 2002), which I’m going to parse, because it’s out of print and was only published in German, which explicates the patterned world view I postulated for the Koran, here in architectural and narrative structure. It’s a series of three essays. That might do for an intro.

Found a possible solution:

Meet Ziauddin Sardar, Pakistani born British scholar, a man whose approach closely aligns with mine. Try for a starter http://ziauddinsardar.com/2014/09/ibn-e-safi-ba/ where he discusses a popular Pakistani novelist, puts him in his cultural and literary context.

Part of the problem is going to be translation; but this is a chronic problem of this project, because so much that is available is only accessible in English and some of the folks who really need it (former East Germans) are unable to follow us there. Sardar’s work has been translated into 40 languages, but is not available in German. Perhaps we shall be able to remedy that. Check out his website and publications. He also has a Quarterly journal that I can highly recommend (CM Critical Muslim).

Once you’re started try this: http://ziauddinsardar.com/2014/09/freeze-framing-muslims/ which extends Edward Said’s Orientalism to an analysis of popular culture (much as Greeley does), here in particular film culture and stereotypes (we’re at level 3 with that).

I want to thank Katrin Visse of the Catholic Academy in Berlin. If you live in Berlin, you might want to check out the evenings she plans with guests speakers from the Muslim world. That’s where I met Zia and realized what a treasure his work is.

Alternative approach:

Rather than trying to fit Islam into the paradigm of Western literature, it might be more useful, in terms of furthering the spiritual growth processes of the individual participants, to open their pathways to poetry. We usually turn off when we hear that and feel it is going to be “difficult”. In some Persian families it is a game where kids compete to win acclaim by their recitation and understanding of this genre.

So here’s another option: There is an NPR program (“On Being” Berlin 104,1 FM, Sunday mornings) which offers a secular option to structuring Sunday reflections. Recently they explored the function of poetry in fostering spiritual growth. Check this out:

http://www.onbeing.org/program/elizabeth-alexander-words-that-shimmer/246

So we might use that as our bridge to refocus our attention to a different mode of perceiving the world and its potential for unleashing spiritual growth.

Hindu

I’ve actually found some quite good stuff for this and think we should definitely include it as an option. It will be needed in the US and GB, and is actually needed as an option in Berlin.

Swarup, Vikas. The Accidental Apprentice. It’s set in a Hindu context but has elements of Buddhism – subtitle: Imagine if your life changed in an instant.

There are also a couple of fun detective stories (somewhat similar in style to Mma Ramotswe – actually probably modelled on the author of the novels discussed by Sardar – above) which analyze some aspects of tomfoolery (duping folks with pseudo gurus) in Indian society: Hall, Tarquin. The Case of the Man who Died Laughing. Arrow Books: London 2012 or (same author) The Case of the Deadly Butter Chicken, which elucidates the Indian/Pakistani problematic.

Buddhist

This option was suggested to me by a couple who were raising a child together but coming from different faith orientations and who found their common ground here. It has been included in the young children’s program. Hesse’s Siddharta is the most obvious choice. Practice is preferable. (see also Swarup above)

Some even lighter suggestions

[see under “occasional papers” film club] 

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